by: Helge, published: May 15, 2023, updated: Apr 14, 2024, in

Portainer Setup Guide With Automatic HTTPS & OAuth SSO via Authelia

This article explains how to set up Portainer with automatic HTTPS certificates (via Caddy) and OAuth single sign-on (via Authelia). This post is part of my series on home automation that shows how to install, configure, and run a home server with (dockerized or virtualized) services such as Home Assistant and ownCloud.

What is Portainer?

Portainer is a Docker container management UI. It’s available in a free & open-source community edition (CE) as well as in a commercial business edition (BE). CE should be sufficient for home server use cases; however, there’s also a nice free offering of BE for up to five nodes. All the features used in this article are available with CE.

Portainer Installation


I’m assuming that you’ve set up Docker, the Caddy container, and Authelia as described in the previous articles in this series. I’m also assuming that you’ve configured Authelia as OpenID Connect IdP as described in my ownCloud article.

Dockerized Portainer Directory Structure

This is what the directory structure will look like when we’re done:

 └── encrypted/
     └── docker/
         └── portainer/
             ├── data/
             └── docker-compose.yml

We’re placing the configuration on the encrypted ZFS dataset (rpool/encrypted).

Create the directories:

mkdir -p /rpool/encrypted/docker/portainer/data

Portainer Docker Compose File

Create docker-compose.yml with the following content:


    container_name: portainer
    hostname: portainer
    image: portainer/portainer-ce:latest
    restart: unless-stopped
      - caddy_caddynet
      - 9443
      - /var/run/docker.sock:/var/run/docker.sock  # required for API access
      - /etc/localtime:/etc/localtime:ro
      - ./data:/data

    external: true

Note: The above YAML file references the CE image of Portainer. To use the BE image instead, simply replace portainer/portainer-ce:latest with portainer/portainer-ee:latest.

Start the Portainer Container

Navigate into the directory with docker-compose.yml and run:

docker compose up -d

Inspect the container logs for errors with the command docker compose logs --tail 30 --timestamps.

Let’s Encrypt Certificate for Portainer via Caddy


Add the following to Caddyfile (details):

portainer.{$MY_DOMAIN} {
	reverse_proxy portainer:9443 {
		transport http {
	tls {
		dns cloudflare {env.CLOUDFLARE_API_TOKEN}

DNS A Record

Add the following A record to your DNS domain:     # replace with your Docker host's IP address

Try to resolve the name on a machine in your network (e.g., nslookup If that fails, you might need to work around DNS rebind protection in your router.

Reload Caddy’s Configuration

Instruct Caddy to reload its configuration by running:

docker exec -w /etc/caddy caddy caddy reload

You should now be able to access the Portainer web interface at without getting a certificate warning from your browser.

Initial Portainer Configuration

Open in your browser. You’re asked to set a password for the user admin. Once in the Portainer UI, click Get Started. You should see information about your local Docker instance.

Create Your Portainer User Account

Create a dedicated user account for yourself by navigating to Settings > Users. Make sure to specify the same user name as configured in lldap (guide), and assign it the administrator role.

SSO to Portainer via OAuth Authentication to Authelia

This section describes how to set up single sign-on to Portainer via OpenID Connect authentication to Authelia. It is based on the Authelia Portainer integration guide.

Authelia: Configure OpenID Connect IdP

Client ID

Generate a random alphanumeric string to be used as client ID:

tr -cd '[:alnum:]' < /dev/urandom | fold -w "64" | head -n 1

Copy the generated string for later use in Authelia’s config file.

Client Secret

The shared secret between Portainer and Authelia is entered as plaintext in the Portainer UI, but as a hash of the plaintext in Authelia’s configuration. Create a new secret by running the following command (docs):

docker run authelia/authelia:latest authelia crypto hash generate pbkdf2 --random --random.length 32 --random.charset alphanumeric

The command’s output looks as follows:

Unable to find image 'authelia/authelia:latest' locally
latest: Pulling from authelia/authelia
Digest: sha256:25fc5423238b6f3a1fc967fda3f6a9212846aeb4a720327ef61c8ccff52dbbe2
Status: Downloaded newer image for authelia/authelia:latest
Random Password: v0e1zWJhvKQYud1lVUx4XhLibOwp0zyd
Digest: $pbkdf2-sha512$310000$vFbvgWgmhAIdZCbcLsrrXA$yRENW40rZpWLUP2ABQglEAhIHgpl7QAJ3eq8ZDEMmEHDL9Rro3eGwQ/4u05JsSLsEO5NIw.iAWVbo7EsiL8V1w

From the above output, the following two strings are required:

  • Plaintext secret: v0e1zWJhvKQYud1lVUx4XhLibOwp0zyd
  • Hashed secret: $pbkdf2-sha512$310000$vFbvgWgmhAIdZCbcLsrrXA$yRENW40rZpWLUP2ABQglEAhIHgpl7QAJ3eq8ZDEMmEHDL9Rro3eGwQ/4u05JsSLsEO5NIw.iAWVbo7EsiL8V1w

Note: do not use the above values. Create your own!

YAML Configuration File

Add the following to Authelia’s configuration file config/configuration.yml (details):

      - client_id: lQ6vsAawaJYH53gSfiUSXKT5XxFYmVjt5o5iFSvOiIgz7wd3lyycNaQpXMo8VhgB  # Replace with your own random ID
        client_name: Portainer
        client_secret: '$pbkdf2-sha512$310000$vFbvgWgmhAIdZCbcLsrrXA$yRENW40rZpWLUP2ABQglEAhIHgpl7QAJ3eq8ZDEMmEHDL9Rro3eGwQ/4u05JsSLsEO5NIw.iAWVbo7EsiL8V1w'  # Replace with your own hashed secret
          -  # Replace with your own URL
          - openid
          - profile
          - groups
          - email

Restart Authelia

We changed the container’s environment, which makes it necessary to recreate the container (stopping and starting is not enough). Navigate into the authelia directory and run:

docker compose down
docker compose up -d

Inspect the container logs for errors with the command docker compose logs --tail 30 --timestamps.

Portainer: Enable OAuth Authentication

In Portainer’s UI, navigate to Settings > Authentication and select OAuth as the authentication method. Set the following values:

  • Single Sign-On: enabled
  • Automatic user provisioning: disabled (this is just my preference)
  • Provider: custom
  • Client ID: [paste the random ID you generated above]
  • Client secret: [paste the plaintext secret you generated above]
  • Authorization URL:
  • Access token URL:
  • Resource URL:
  • Redirect URL:
  • User identifier: preferred_username
  • Scopes: openid profile groups email

Note: Make sure to replace the dummy URLs above with your own.

Save the settings.

Log In via OAuth

In a different browser, access Click Login with OAuth. It should work without a hitch. After you logged in, inspect the Authelia container logs for errors with the command docker compose logs --tail 30 --timestamps.



  • Removed the version from docker-compose.yml; a warning mentions that it’s obsolete.


Updated Configuration for Authelia 4.38

The following Authelia settings need to be changed or updated:

  • Rename to oidc.clients.client_id.
  • Rename oidc.clients.description to oidc.clients.client_name.
  • Rename oidc.clients.secret to oidc.clients.client_secret.

Previous Article Tips for DevOps Pipeline Automation & Bash Scripting
Next Article Unbound DNS Server Configuration & Static IPv6 Address on Proxmox