by: Helge, published: Jul 29, 2023, updated: Feb 25, 2024, in

Grafana Setup Guide With Automatic HTTPS & OAuth SSO via Authelia

This article explains how to set up Grafana, Loki, and Promtail with automatic HTTPS certificates (via Caddy) and OAuth single sign-on (via Authelia). This post is part of my series on home automation that shows how to install, configure, and run a home server with (dockerized or virtualized) services such as Home Assistant and ownCloud.

What are Grafana, Loki & Promtail?

Grafana is a data visualization platform that supports a wide variety of data sources, most notably Prometheus and Loki. Prometheus (subject of a future post) stores metrics data as time series and makes it searchable via its query language, PromQL. Loki is similar in nature to Prometheus but operates on log data instead; its query language LogQL was inspired by Prometheus’ PromQL. Promtail is a log shipping tool that collects logs and forwards them to Loki.

Grafana, Loki & Promtail Installation

Preparation

I’m assuming that you’ve set up Docker, the Caddy container, and Authelia as described in the previous articles in this series. I’m also assuming that you’ve configured Authelia as OpenID Connect IdP as described in my ownCloud article.

Dockerized Grafana Directory Structure

This is what the directory structure will look like when we’re done:

rpool/
 └── encrypted/
     └── docker/
         └── grafana/
             ├── data/
                 ├── grafana/
                 ├── loki/
                 └── promtail/
             ├── config/
                 ├── grafana/
                     └── grafana.ini
                 ├── loki/
                     └── local-config.yml
                 └── promtail/
                     └── config.yml
             └── docker-compose.yml

We’re placing the configuration on the encrypted ZFS dataset (rpool/encrypted).

Create the directories and files. Set ownership of Grafana directories to user/group ID 472, which are used by dockerized Grafana (sadly, not officially documented). Set ownership of Loki directories to user/group ID 10001, which are used by dockerized Loki (docs).

mkdir -p /rpool/encrypted/docker/grafana/data/grafana
mkdir -p /rpool/encrypted/docker/grafana/data/loki
mkdir -p /rpool/encrypted/docker/grafana/data/promtail
mkdir -p /rpool/encrypted/docker/grafana/config/grafana
touch /rpool/encrypted/docker/grafana/config/grafana/grafana.ini
mkdir -p /rpool/encrypted/docker/grafana/config/loki
mkdir -p /rpool/encrypted/docker/grafana/config/promtail
chown -Rfv 472:472 /rpool/encrypted/docker/grafana/data/grafana/
chown 472:472 /rpool/encrypted/docker/grafana/config/grafana/grafana.ini
chown -Rfv 10001:10001 /rpool/encrypted/docker/grafana/data/loki/

Grafana Docker Compose File

Create docker-compose.yml with the following content:

version: "3.9"

services:

  grafana:
    container_name: grafana
    hostname: grafana
    image: grafana/grafana-oss:latest
    restart: unless-stopped
    networks:
      backend:              # backend communications
      caddy_caddynet:       # frontend communications (web UI)    
    expose:
      - 3000                # Web UI
    volumes:
      - /etc/localtime:/etc/localtime:ro
      - ./config/grafana/grafana.ini:/etc/grafana/grafana.ini:ro
      - ./data/grafana:/var/lib/grafana

  loki:
    container_name: loki
    hostname: loki
    image: grafana/loki:latest
    restart: unless-stopped
    networks: 
      - backend
    expose:
      - 3100                # HTTP API
      - 9095                # gRPC
    volumes:
      - /etc/localtime:/etc/localtime:ro
      - ./config/loki:/etc/loki:ro
      - ./data/loki:/loki
    command: ["-config.file=/etc/loki/local-config.yml"]

  promtail:
    container_name: promtail
    hostname: promtail
    image: grafana/promtail:latest
    restart: unless-stopped
    networks:
      - backend
    ports:
      - 1514:1514
    volumes:
      - /etc/localtime:/etc/localtime:ro
      - ./config/promtail:/etc/promtail:ro
      - ./data/promtail:/promtail
    depends_on: 
      - loki

networks: 
  caddy_caddynet:
    external: true
  backend:
    driver: bridge

Note: The above YAML file references the open-source (OSS) image of Grafana. To use the enterprise image instead, replace grafana/grafana-oss:latest with grafana/grafana-enterprise:latest.

Loki YAML Configuration File

We’re using a customized version of Grafana’s Loki configuration template. Create config/loki/local-config.yml with the following content:

auth_enabled: false

server:
  http_listen_port: 3100
  grpc_listen_port: 9095

common:
  path_prefix: /loki
  storage:
    filesystem:
      chunks_directory: /loki/chunks
      rules_directory: /loki/rules
  replication_factor: 1
  ring:
    kvstore:
      store: inmemory

schema_config:
  configs:
    - from: 2020-10-24
      store: boltdb-shipper
      object_store: filesystem
      schema: v11
      index:
        prefix: index_
        period: 24h

ruler:
  alertmanager_url: http://localhost:9093

analytics:
  # Disable usage statistics reporting to Grafana
  reporting_enabled: false

# Enable data retention management through compactor
compactor:
  retention_enabled: true

# Set the data retention period
limits_config:
  retention_period: 90d

Promtail Configuration File

For now, we’ll only provide a minimal Promtail configuration. The following disables Promtail’s built-in server and specifies our Loki instance as the data receiver. Note that this doesn’t configure Promtail to collect any data – that’s going to be the subject of a future post.

Create config/promtail/config.yml with the following content:

# Disable the HTTP and GRPC server.
server:
  disable: true

positions:
  filename: /promtail/positions.yml

# Send (push) all data to Loki
clients:
  - url: http://loki:3100/loki/api/v1/push

Start the Grafana Containers

Navigate into the directory with docker-compose.yml and run:

docker compose up -d

Inspect the container logs for errors with the command docker compose logs --tail 30 --timestamps.

Let’s Encrypt Certificate for Grafana via Caddy

Caddyfile

Add the following to Caddyfile (details):

grafana.{$MY_DOMAIN} {
	reverse_proxy grafana:3000
	tls {
		dns cloudflare {env.CLOUDFLARE_API_TOKEN}
	}
}

DNS A Record

Add the following A record to your DNS domain:

grafana.home.yourdomain.com 192.168.0.4     # replace with your Docker host's IP address

Try to resolve the name on a machine in your network (e.g., nslookup grafana.home.yourdomain.com). If that fails, you might need to work around DNS rebind protection in your router.

Reload Caddy’s Configuration

Instruct Caddy to reload its configuration by running:

docker exec -w /etc/caddy caddy caddy reload

You should now be able to access the Grafana web interface at https://grafana.home.yourdomain.com without getting a certificate warning from your browser.

Initial Grafana Configuration

Open https://grafana.home.yourdomain.com in your browser. You’re asked to set a password for the user admin.

Add Loki Connection as Data Source

Configure Grafana to connect to and search Loki data by navigating to Home > Connections > Add new connection > Loki, click Create a Loki data source and specify the following:

  • URL: http://loki:3100

When clicking Save & test, you’ll get the message: Data source connected, but no labels were received. Verify that Loki and Promtail are correctly configured. That’s OK; after all, we haven’t configured any data sources in Promtail yet, so there’s no data in Loki.

SSO to Grafana via OpenID Connect (OIDC) Authentication to Authelia

This section describes how to set up single sign-on to Grafana via OpenID Connect authentication to Authelia. It is based on the Authelia Grafana integration guide.

Authelia: Configure OpenID Connect IdP

Client ID

Generate a random alphanumeric string to be used as client ID:

tr -cd '[:alnum:]' < /dev/urandom | fold -w "64" | head -n 1

Copy the generated string for later use in Authelia’s config file.

Client Secret

The shared secret between Grafana and Authelia is entered as plaintext in the Grafana UI but as a hash of the plaintext in Authelia’s configuration. Create a new secret by running the following command (docs):

docker run authelia/authelia:latest authelia crypto hash generate pbkdf2 --random --random.length 32 --random.charset alphanumeric

The command’s relevant output looks as follows:

Random Password: v0e1zWJhvKQYud1lVUx4XhLibOwp0zyd
Digest: $pbkdf2-sha512$310000$vFbvgWgmhAIdZCbcLsrrXA$yRENW40rZpWLUP2ABQglEAhIHgpl7QAJ3eq8ZDEMmEHDL9Rro3eGwQ/4u05JsSLsEO5NIw.iAWVbo7EsiL8V1w

From the above output, the following two strings are required:

  • Plaintext secret: v0e1zWJhvKQYud1lVUx4XhLibOwp0zyd
  • Hashed secret: $pbkdf2-sha512$310000$vFbvgWgmhAIdZCbcLsrrXA$yRENW40rZpWLUP2ABQglEAhIHgpl7QAJ3eq8ZDEMmEHDL9Rro3eGwQ/4u05JsSLsEO5NIw.iAWVbo7EsiL8V1w

Note: do not use the above values. Create your own!

YAML Configuration File

Add the following to the oidc: section of Authelia’s configuration file config/configuration.yml (details):

    clients:
      - id: lQ6vsAawaJYH53gSfiUSXKT5XxFYmVjt5o5iFSvOiIgz7wd3lyycNaQpXMo8VhgB  # Replace with your own random ID
        description: Grafana
        secret: '$pbkdf2-sha512$310000$vFbvgWgmhAIdZCbcLsrrXA$yRENW40rZpWLUP2ABQglEAhIHgpl7QAJ3eq8ZDEMmEHDL9Rro3eGwQ/4u05JsSLsEO5NIw.iAWVbo7EsiL8V1w'  # Replace with your own hashed secret
        redirect_uris:
          - https://grafana.home.yourdomain.com/login/generic_oauth  # Replace with your own URL
        scopes:
          - openid
          - profile
          - groups
          - email
        userinfo_signing_algorithm: none

Restart Authelia

We changed the container’s environment, which makes it necessary to recreate the container (stopping and starting is not enough). Navigate into the authelia directory and run:

docker compose down
docker compose up -d

Inspect the container logs for errors with the command docker compose logs --tail 30 --timestamps.

Grafana: Enable OIDC Authentication

Add the following to config/grafana/grafana.ini:

[server]
root_url = https://grafana.home.yourdomain.com                      # Replace with your own URL

[auth.generic_oauth]
enabled = true
name = Authelia
icon = signin
client_id = lQ6vsAawaJYH53gSfiUSXKT5XxFYmVjt5o5iFSvOiIgz7wd3lyycNaQpXMo8VhgB  # Replace with your own random ID
client_secret = v0e1zWJhvKQYud1lVUx4XhLibOwp0zyd                    # Replace with your plaintext secret
scopes = openid profile email groups
empty_scopes = false
auth_url = https://auth.home.yourdomain.com/api/oidc/authorization  # Replace with your own URL
token_url = https://auth.home.yourdomain.com/api/oidc/token         # Replace with your own URL
api_url = https://auth.home.yourdomain.com/api/oidc/userinfo        # Replace with your own URL
login_attribute_path = preferred_username
groups_attribute_path = groups
name_attribute_path = name
use_pkce = true

Restart Grafana

Navigate into the grafana directory and run:

docker compose stop
docker compose start

Inspect the container logs for errors with the command docker compose logs --tail 30 --timestamps.

Log In via OAuth

In a different browser, access https://grafana.home.yourdomain.com. Click Sign in with Authelia. It should work without a hitch.

Assign Admin Permissions

When you first log in via SSO, Grafana creates a new user account with the data from Authelia. We’ll assign admin permissions to this new user by signing back in as user admin, navigating to Administration > Users, and setting Grafana Admin to yes.

We’ll also make the new user an organization admin by navigating to Administration > Organizations, and changing the new user’s Role from Viewer to Admin.

Enable Auto-Login and Disable Local Authentication

Now that SSO is fully set up we can configure Grafana to automatically log in via OAuth, bypassing its login screen entirely. We can also disable basic (local) authentication. Add the following to config/grafana/grafana.ini and restart Grafana:

[auth.generic_oauth]
auto_login = true

[auth.basic]
enabled = false

Changelog

2024-02-25

  • Added Promtail data directory for promtail-positions.yml.
  • Added Loki data retention configuration.

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