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How to Check the TPM Status & Enable the CPU’s fTPM/PTT

The recent Windows 11 announcement has created a lot of confusion due to the requirement for a trusted platform module (TPM). This article explains why your machine almost certainly has a TPM, how to check the TPM status and how to enable the TPM that comes with your CPU.

Why Your Machine (Almost Certainly) Has a TPM

Windows 10 TPM Requirement for OEMs

If you bought your machine with Windows 10 in the past five years, it has a TPM: all new or updated devices must come with an enabled TPM 2.0 as of July 28, 2016, as stated in the Windows 10 minimum hardware requirements. This applies to all desktop versions of Windows 10 (Home, Pro, Enterprise, and Education).

CPU-Based TPM: Intel PTT & AMD fTPM

If you have a custom-built PC or a machine that was sold without Windows 10, chances are excellent that your CPU has an embedded TPM. Ever since Skylake (6th gen), nearly all Intel CPUs have an embedded TPM 2.0 that Intel calls Platform Trust Technology (PTT). AMD CPUs have an embedded TPM 2.0 called fTPM since the AM4 platform (2016).

Check Your Machine’s TPM Status

There are many different ways you can check if your machine has an enabled TPM.

Settings App

Open the Settings UWP app on the Device security tab by opening the URI windowsdefender://devicesecurity. If a TPM is enabled, you’ll see a link to the Security processor details page which looks as follows for an Intel PTT:

Management Console (MMC)

Open the Windows MMC snap-in tpm.msc. If your machine’s TPM is enabled it should look similar to the following:

If the TPM is disabled, on the other hand, the MMC looks like this:

Command-Line Tool

The Windows command-line tool tpmtool shows detailed status info when called with the parameter getdeviceinformation. This does not require elevated permissions. Here’s the output from a machine with the Intel PTT:

C:\>tpmtool.exe getdeviceinformation

-TPM Present: True
-TPM Version: 2.0
-TPM Manufacturer ID: INTC
-TPM Manufacturer Full Name: Intel
-TPM Manufacturer Version: 302.12.0.0
-PPI Version: 1.3
-Is Initialized: True
-Ready For Storage: True
-Ready For Attestation: True
-Is Capable For Attestation: True
-Clear Needed To Recover: False
-Clear Possible: True
-TPM Has Vulnerable Firmware: False
-PCR7 Binding State: 0
-Maintenance Task Complete: True
-TPM Spec Version: 1.16
-TPM Errata Date: Wednesday, September 21, 2016
-PC Client Version: 1.00
-Is Locked Out: False

PowerShell

The PowerShell cmdlet Get-Tpm needs to be run with elevated privileges. Its output looks as follows for an Intel PTT:

PS C:\> Get-Tpm

TpmPresent                : True
TpmReady                  : True
TpmEnabled                : True
TpmActivated              : True
TpmOwned                  : True
RestartPending            : True
ManufacturerId            : 1229870147
ManufacturerIdTxt         : INTC
ManufacturerVersion       : 302.12.0.0
ManufacturerVersionFull20 : 302.12.0.0

ManagedAuthLevel          : Full
OwnerAuth                 : MA9JHWcXmATuXijf7kwOSsCCCxU=
OwnerClearDisabled        : False
AutoProvisioning          : Enabled
LockedOut                 : False
LockoutHealTime           : 10 minutes
LockoutCount              : 0
LockoutMax                : 31
SelfTest                  : {}

As you can see above, the TPM version (1.2 or 2.0) is not available via the Get-Tpm cmdlet.

WMI

The WMI class Win32_Tpm needs to be queried with elevated privileges. In PowerShell this looks as follows for an Intel PTT:

PS C:\> Get-WmiObject -Namespace "Root\CIMV2\Security\MicrosoftTpm" -query "Select * from Win32_Tpm"

__GENUS                     : 2
__CLASS                     : Win32_Tpm
__SUPERCLASS                :
__DYNASTY                   : Win32_Tpm
__RELPATH                   : [email protected]
__PROPERTY_COUNT            : 10
__DERIVATION                : {}
__SERVER                    : HK87K
__NAMESPACE                 : Root\CIMV2\Security\MicrosoftTpm
__PATH                      : \\HK87K\Root\CIMV2\Security\MicrosoftTpm:[email protected]
IsActivated_InitialValue    : True
IsEnabled_InitialValue      : True
IsOwned_InitialValue        : True
ManufacturerId              : 1229870147
ManufacturerIdTxt           : INTC
ManufacturerVersion         : 302.12.0.0
ManufacturerVersionFull20   : 302.12.0.0
ManufacturerVersionInfo     : Intel
PhysicalPresenceVersionInfo : 1.3
SpecVersion                 : 2.0, 0, 1.16
PSComputerName              : COMPUTERNAME

Please note the format of the SpecVersion field: major specification version, minor specification version, specification revision. If you’re looking for the TPM version, you’re probably only interested in the major version (2.0 or 1.2).

uberAgent (TPM Status Inventory)

As an enterprise, you need an inventory of your devices’ TPM status. Take a look at this uberAgent practice guide which explains how to collect regular TPM status from any number of endpoints. The results are stored in Splunk for easy analysis and reporting:

Enable the CPU’s fTPM/PTT

To enable your CPU’s built-in TPM boot into the UEFI settings (what used to be the BIOS setup), localize the setting often simply called fTPM (AMD CPUs) or PTT (Intel CPUs), and enable it.

Caveats

  • Some mainboards might be lacking this BIOS setting to enable the CPU’s TPM. In that case, your only hope is a BIOS update.
  • TPM 2.0 is only supported in UEFI mode, not in legacy BIOS mode. Switching from BIOS to UEFI mode may prevent an installed OS from booting.

More Information on TPMs

What Is a TPM?

A TPM can calculate random numbers, RSA keys, decrypt short data, and store hashes taken when booting the device. A TPM incorporates in a single component:

  • A RSA 2048-bit key generator
  • A random number generator
  • Nonvolatile memory for storing EK, SRK, and AIK keys
  • A cryptographic engine to encrypt, decrypt, and sign
  • Volatile memory for storing the PCRs and RSA keys

TPM 1.2 vs. TPM 2.0

The newer TPM 2.0 standard offers security advantages over TPM 1.2, which is limited to the RSA and SHA-1 hashing algorithms.

TPM 1.2 parts are available as discrete silicon components (dTPM) only, whereas TPM 2.0 can also be integrated as firmware-based components (fTPM), e.g., into CPUs.

TPM Initialization

Starting with Windows 10, the OS automatically initializes the TPM. This is a change from earlier Windows versions, where you would initialize the TPM and create an owner password.

Windows Features That Require a TPM

The following Windows features require TPM support (source):

Windows feature TPM version
Measured Boot TPM 1.2 or 2.0
Device Encryption TPM 2.0
Windows Defender System Guard TPM 2.0
Device Health Attestation TPM 1.2 or 2.0
Virtual Smart Card TPM 1.2 or 2.0
Autopilot TPM 2.0
SecureBIO TPM 2.0
DRTM TPM 2.0

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